Understanding Hydration Percentage in Bread: Why It Matters and How It Affects Your Loaf

Hydration Percentage in Bread


When it comes to baking bread, one of the most crucial factors to consider is the hydration percentage. This term refers to the ratio of water to flour in the dough and has a significant impact on the texture, flavor, and overall quality of the final product. In this blog post, we'll explore what hydration percentage is, why it matters, and how different levels of hydration can influence your bread.

What is Hydration Percentage?

Hydration percentage is calculated by dividing the weight of the water by the weight of the flour and then multiplying by 100. For example, if you have 500 grams of flour and 350 grams of water, your dough has a hydration percentage of 70% (350/500 * 100).

Hydration Percentage=(Weight of WaterWeight of Flour)×100\text{Hydration Percentage} = \left( \frac{\text{Weight of Water}}{\text{Weight of Flour}} \right) \times 100

bread dough on a board

Why Hydration Percentage Matters

  1. Texture and Crumb Structure: The hydration level directly affects the texture of the bread. Lower hydration (60-65%) results in a denser crumb, while higher hydration (70% and above) leads to an open, airy structure with large holes, typical of artisan breads like ciabatta and focaccia.

  2. Flavor Development: Higher hydration doughs often develop more complex flavors due to extended fermentation times. The increased water content allows enzymes and yeast to work more efficiently, breaking down starches and proteins into flavorful compounds.

  3. Crust Characteristics: Hydration also influences the crust of the bread. Higher hydration breads tend to have a thinner, crisper crust, while lower hydration breads have a thicker, chewier crust.

  4. Handling and Mixing: The ease of handling dough is affected by its hydration level. Lower hydration doughs are stiffer and easier to shape, whereas higher hydration doughs are stickier and require more skill and experience to handle properly.

Differences in Hydration Levels

  1. Low Hydration (50-60%): These doughs are relatively stiff and dry, making them easier to shape and handle. They produce breads with a tight crumb and a chewy texture. Examples include bagels and certain types of sandwich breads.

  2. Medium Hydration (60-70%): This range is common for many types of bread, including basic white and whole wheat loaves. The dough is manageable and produces a balance between an open crumb and a slightly chewy texture.

  3. High Hydration (70-85%): These doughs are wet and sticky, requiring special techniques like stretch and fold during kneading. They result in breads with an open, airy crumb and a thin, crispy crust. Classic examples are ciabatta and focaccia.

  4. Very High Hydration (85% and above): At this level, the dough is extremely fluid and difficult to handle, often requiring specialized equipment. The resulting bread is exceptionally light and airy, with a very open crumb structure. This level of hydration is typical for certain artisan breads and some sourdoughs.

freshly baked bread

Tips for Working with Different Hydration Levels

  • Low Hydration: These doughs are easy to knead by hand or with a mixer. Be mindful of not overworking the dough to prevent a tough texture.
  • Medium Hydration: Suitable for beginner bakers. Use a stand mixer or hand-kneading techniques, and consider using a pre-ferment to enhance flavor.
  • High Hydration: Use techniques like autolyse (resting the flour and water mixture before adding yeast and salt) and stretch and fold to develop gluten without overworking the dough. Use a bench scraper and wet your hands to manage the stickiness.
  • Very High Hydration: Requires advanced handling techniques and often benefits from longer fermentation times. Consider using bannetons (proofing baskets) to support the dough during the final rise.


Understanding hydration percentage is key to mastering the art of bread baking. By adjusting the hydration level, you can influence the texture, flavor, and appearance of your bread, tailoring it to your preferences. Whether you're aiming for a dense, chewy loaf or a light, airy artisan bread, knowing how to manage and work with different hydration levels will elevate your baking skills and lead to consistently excellent results.

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